佛陀正覺後2454年/西元2022年

還原原始佛法

還原、重現原始佛法及確立人間佛教的貢獻

隨佛禪師對佛教教法的探究與修行,主要是「從佛教傳承的最古老教義中,探尋佛教初始時期的教法,並致力於 釋迦佛陀教法、禪法及菩提道次第原貌的探究、闡揚與實踐」。禪師在部派佛教分裂史的考證研究,還有部派佛教在教法上的演變始末上都有卓越的研究成果。

隨佛禪師根據漢譯《相應阿含》及南傳《相應部》之〈因緣相應〉、〈食相應〉、〈聖諦相應〉、〈界相應〉、〈五陰(蘊)相應〉、〈六處相應〉、〈四念處等道品相應〉等七事修多羅當中古老經法的共說,比對、還原佛滅當年「第一次結集」的集成。經過多年的探究與修行,在回歸 釋迦佛陀的原說教導上,主要有十點作為與貢獻:

1. 考證、顯現印度佛教僧團與教法演變的真相。

2. 還原「十二因緣法」:還原依「六處為分位」之「十二因緣法」的原說。

3. 重現「十二因緣觀」:從「六入處觀集法、滅法」入手,現觀「十二因緣集法與滅法」。同時確定「觀四念處集與滅」、「觀五陰集法與滅法」、「觀六觸入處集與滅」、「觀世間集與世間滅」、「觀有身集與有身滅」、「觀食之集與滅」、「觀三摩地勤行成就之神足」、「觀老死集與老死滅」、「觀四聖諦(初轉)的苦諦、苦集諦、苦滅諦」,都是修習「觀十二因緣的集與滅」。

4. 重現「一乘菩提道次第」:還原「先斷無明,後斷貪愛」,重現佛陀原說「四聖諦三轉、十二行」的「一乘菩提道次第」。

5. 重現「七菩提支」之「中道禪法」:經由還原佛陀親說的「十二因緣法」,才能重新顯現「修十二因緣觀,次第起七菩提支,統貫三十七道品,次第的圓滿四聖諦三轉、十二行,成就正覺、離貪、慈悲喜捨、解脫、阿耨多羅三藐三菩提」的「中道禪法」。

6. 建立「中道僧團」:確立了「依經、依律、不依論,戮力實踐,篤實修行」的學風。唯以經教、禪法、道次第弘法化眾,建立既不受取、不使用、不積蓄錢財,也無有「專為僧人管理金錢供養、買辦事宜的『淨人』」,修行、宣揚、傳承「中道禪法」的中道僧團。

7. 還原「經說傳誦」:根據漢譯《相應阿含》、南傳《相應部》當中七事相應教的古老共說,將漢譯說一切有部誦本的《相應阿含》予以整治、濾淨後世部義的揉雜,還原為契合「佛陀原說」的傳誦,並進一步編著出易讓一般民眾了解的白話本與解說。這是攸關原始佛教復興的根本大事,目前中道僧團正積極進行中,預計在2016 年完成整編。這將為佛法再現人間,做出可貴與廣大、長遠的貢獻。

8. 創立原始佛教會:依據「原始佛教」的教法及次第,團結海內外的各派佛教學人,共同為世間的昌隆與佛教的團結盡一份努力。

9. 創立四聖諦佛教會:依據「四聖諦」促進「原始佛教」及「南傳部派」的團結,稟持「原始佛教、南傳上座、漢傳顯教、藏傳密乘,四系一家、同利人間」的準則,共同昌隆佛教。

10. 完成人間佛教的思想及實踐論證:

一、二十世紀初,太虛大師首先提倡「法界圓覺學為本」的人生佛教,針砭以超薦、度亡為主的傳統佛教弊病。

二、二十世紀中葉,印順導師提倡「性空唯名學為本」的人間佛教,走出中、後期大乘佛教思想的「唯心、唯識」,重視十善為基礎的人間正行,歸向「空、無自性」的印度初期大乘教說。

兩位佛教大師盡一生的努力,前後經過近約百年的「人間佛教」革新運動,都為華人佛教及社會產生巨大、正面、可貴的影響。但是,不論是以「唯心、唯識」,或採用「無常、苦、非我、空」作為認識論,都是源自《舍利弗阿毘曇論》之「破邪即顯正」的思惟,偏向「否定現實世間」的訛誤,無法達成「開展人間生活與修證菩提的一致性」。

三、二十一世紀初,承續 佛陀及太虛、印順兩位大師的利世精神,隨佛禪師從古老〈七事修多羅〉探得「因緣法」是世間的真相,重新依據「因緣法」為核心,「四聖諦三轉、十二行」為實踐次第,契合「顯正得捨妄,捨妄不顯正」的事實,回歸「解決問題,滅除苦惱」的佛法宗旨,遂能達成「契合真實佛法,體現開展人間生活與修證菩提的一致性」,完成人間佛教的思想及實踐論證。人間佛教百年三部曲的探究與革新運動,終於在思想、實踐的主軸,徹底回歸 佛陀親教的因緣法、四聖諦,證明了人間佛教即是佛陀的佛教,充份展現 佛陀的佛教是真正的人間佛教。 

Contribution in Restoration and Reappearing of Original Buddhism and Establishment of Humanistic Buddhism

Master Vūpasama’s main objectives in the exploration and practice of Buddhism are to investigate and discover the doctrines of Original Buddhism, making every effort to advocate and practice Buddha Sākyamuni's original teachings, meditation methods, and the stages for awakening path. The Master makes remarkable achievements of research both in the history of the division of Sectarian Buddhism and in the evolution of the doctrines of Sectarian Buddhism.

Master Vūpasama has completed a comparative study on the Chinese translated "Samyukta-Āgama" of Ven. Anānda lineage and the Theravada Buddhism’s "Samyutta-Nikāya" of Ven. Upāli lineage. By comparing and verifying the common contents of the suttas of the seven categories, namely " Relevant Influencing (Nidānas)", "nutriment", "noble truths", "realms", "five abstruseness (aggregates)", "six sense bases", and "Noble Paths (including Four Objects of Mindfulness)" of Samyukta-Āgama and Samyutta-Nikāya, consequently he has restored the original works of the First Buddhist Council convened in the same year as the Buddha passed away. After many years of exploration and practices, Ven. Master has made ten major contributions in the restoration of the original teaching of the Buddha as follows:

1. Research in unveiling the truth of the evolution of Saṅgha and the doctrines of the Buddhism in India.

2. Restoration of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)" back to the original teaching with six sense bases as the divider.

3. Recovering of the meditation methods of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)": contemplating the arising and cessation of six sense bases for insight into "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)"; meanwhile, confirming that “contemplating the arising and cessation of the Four Foundation of Mindfulness, the Five abstruseness (aggregates), Six Bases for Contact (channaṃ phassāyatanānaṃ), the world(loka), the body in being (sakkāya), four kinds of nutriment (cattārome āhārā), the base of power endowed with concentration founded on discrimination and the fabrications of exertion (vīriyasāsamādhippadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ), the aging and death, the truth of suffering, the arising and cessation of suffering upon the realization of the first round of the four noble truths are all referring to the contemplation of the arising and cessation of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)".

4. Recovering the Single Path of Awakening (Ekāyana-magga): restoring the cessation of Ignorance must come before the cessation of Craving as the stages of the three rounds with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths.

5. Recovering the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) as the meditation method of the Middle way(majjhimā paṭipadā): by means of restoring the Buddha’s original teaching of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)", the meditation method of the middle path thus reappears, which is to exercise the meditation methods of "the Twelve Factors of Relevant Influencing (Paṭicca-samuppāda)" by sequentially fulfilling the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Satta Bojjhaṅgā) integrating all of the thirty seven individual qualities of awakening (Bodhipakkhiyādhammā); and thus sequentially completing the three rounds with twelve aspects of the Four Noble Truths to accomplish awakening, detachment of craving, the Four Immeasurable Attitudes (viz. loving-kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity), liberation (Mokkha), and Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi.

6. Establishing the "Sambodhi Saṅgha": The tradition of practices is to diligently exercise, to advocate and to carry the meditation of the middle path in strict accordance with suttas and vinaya rather than the commentaries (Abhidhamma), and with the principles of only advocating the suttas, meditation methods and the Single Path of Awakening, and with the rules of not receiving, using and accumulating money and of no use of lay attendant (kappiya).

7. Restoration of the original recited suttas: The restoration is to review the suttas of the seven categories in the Chinese translated "Samyukta-Āgama" of Ven. Anānda lineage and "Samyutta-Nikāya" of Ven. Upāli lineage, and based on the Chinese translated "Samyukta-Āgama" of Sabbatthivāda school to reproduce the original recited suttas by means of remediating and filtering of alteration and additions implanted by Sectarian Buddhists. A version of vernacular Chinese shall be produced too. This is fundamentally vital to the revitalization of Original Buddhism and is being undertaken by the "Sambodhi Saṅgha" with an estimate schedule of completion in 2016, which shall be a valuable, massive and long-lasting contribution to the reappearing of Dharma.

8. Establishing Original Buddhism Society: to unite local and overseas practitioners of Original Buddhism to contribute collaborative efforts to the prosperity of the world and unity of Buddhism.

9. Establishing the Buddhist Society of Four Noble Truth: to promote the union of both Original Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism in accordance with the Four Noble Truths, as well as to jointly advocate Buddhism and to make collaborative efforts to the welfare of the world with the guideline that we are one family of the four lineages, namely, Original Buddhism, Theravada, Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism.

10. Completing the demonstration of the ideologies and practices of Humanistic Buddhism:

a. In the early twentieth century, Ven. Taixu who was the first to advocate “Buddhism for Human life” based on the doctrine of “the Dharmadhaatu Teaching of Perfect Awakening” (法界圓覺學), indicating his criticism of conventional Buddhism with an emphasis on funeral services and rites.

b. In the mid-twentieth century, Ven. Yin Shun advocated "Humanistic Buddhism" based on “Emptiness of its own entity” (性空唯名學), which left behind the mid-term and late-term Mahayana Yogacara Buddhism with philosophy of “Mind-only or Consciousness-only or Cognition-only” (emphasizing phenomenology and ontology) (虛妄唯識論), and “embryo of the Tathagata” (真常唯心論), and returned to the emphasis of the ten good deeds of the human lives and the philosophy of “emptiness and non-own-nature” of the early Mahayana Buddhism in India.

Both Masters dedicated their life time to the reform of Chinese Buddhism to Humanistic Buddhism over the last century, causing a huge, massive and valuable effect to the Chinese society and the community of Chinese Buddhists. However, either adopting “Mind-only or Consciousness-only” or adopting the “impermanence, suffering, no-self, and emptiness” as the foundation for epistemology are both originated from the “Sariputta Abhidhamma”, and both apply the method of “affirm by denials of all” leading to the denial of the real world and the inability of achieving “the accordance of both development of human life and attainment of the enlightenment”.

c. In the early twenty first century, inheriting the spirit of altruism of the two Masters, Ven. Taixu and Ven. Yin-Shun, Ven. Vūpasama discovers that the Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) is the truth of the world and life, thus, realign the Humanistic Buddhism with the Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) as the core foundation, the three round with twelve aspects of four noble truths as the stages of realization, the accordance of the fact of “To disprove error will not expose correctness whereas when correctness is exposed errors will be disproved” and the purposes of Buddhism as to solve problems and to eliminate the cause of suffering, therefore, achieving “the accordance of both optimization of human life and attainment of the enlightenment”. The ideologies and practices of Humanistic Buddhism are eventually re-aligned with the original teaching of Buddha, namely Relevant Influencing (Nidānas) and four noble truths, after the three stages of development over the past century. This proves that the Humanistic Buddhism is in fact Buddhism of the Buddha himself, and thoroughly demonstrates that Buddhism of the Buddha himself is the real Humanistic Buddhism.